how many vedas and puranas are there

According to our needs we had two sets of grammar, one for the Vedas (sanhita part) and the other for the Puranas and for common use, because the formation of certain words and their phrasing is different in the Vedas as compared to the language of the Puranas. What do the Vedas deal with? But Srila Vyasadeva divided the original Veda into four, namely Sama, Yajur, Rg, Atharva, and then again they were explained in different branches like the Puranas and the Mahabharata. Only the perfect language of the Vedas, as in contrast to ordinary speech, can reveal these truths, which were preserved by committing them to memory. There are eighteen “major” Puranas and innumerable other works usually referred to as “minor” Puranas—a vast range of scriptural sources, and in truth there is virtually no one in the world today who can claim to be well-versed even in the eighteen major works. [82] According to Staal, criticising the Goody-Watt hypothesis "according to which literacy is more reliable than orality,"[86] this tradition of oral transmission "is closely related to Indian forms of science," and "by far the more remarkable" than the relatively recent tradition of written transmission. There are 18 Maha Puranas (Great Puranas) and 18 Upa Puranas (Minor Puranas), with over 400,000 verses. The third Veda is the Yajur-Veda,which deals with Whence, whence this creation sprang? Ramayana nad mahabharata are the two greatest EPICS. Bhagavatam. For other uses, see, Manuscripts of the Vedas are in the Sanskrit language, but in many regional scripts in addition to the, Chronology, transmission and interpretation, It is certain that the hymns of the Rig Veda post-date, For a table of all Vedic texts see Witzel, Michael, "Vedas and, The Vedic Sanskrit corpus is incorporated in, "As a skilled craftsman makes a car, a singer I, Mighty One! There are 1 Maha Purana, 17 Mukhya Puranas (Major Puranas) and 18 Upa Puranas (Minor Puranas), with over 400,000 verses. There are many Puranas and there are even new ones being created to this day. This article will further highlight the differences between Vedas and Puranas within the context of the IAS Exam. [230], The various Hindu denominations and Indian philosophies have taken differing positions on the authority of the Vedas. Strassburg 1899; Gonda, J. Jan Gonda (1975), Vedic Literature: (Saṃhitās and Brāhmaṇas), Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. [176] Two different versions of the text – the Paippalāda and the Śaunakīya – have survived into the modern times. [note 2] Other śramaṇa traditions, such as Lokayata, Carvaka, Ajivika, Buddhism and Jainism, which did not regard the Vedas as authorities, are referred to as "heterodox" or "non-orthodox" (nāstika) schools. For the Atharvaveda, there are 79 works, collected as 72 distinctly named parisistas. [190][191] The first hymn is a recitation that accompanies offering a Yajna oblation to Agni (fire) on the occasion of a marriage, and the hymn prays for prosperity of the couple getting married. Michael Witzel (2003), "Vedas and Upaniṣads", in The Blackwell Companion to Hinduism (Editor: Gavin Flood), Blackwell. however most important and popular texts are Mahabharata and Ramayana . However, there are about 19 main ones about to the main Hindu deities like Agni, Vayu, Vishnu, Shiva and Brahma. [65][66][note 1] The other three Samhitas are considered to date from the time of the Kuru Kingdom, approximately c. 1200–900 BCE. [178][179] It was compiled last,[180] probably around 900 BCE, although some of its material may go back to the time of the Rigveda,[181] or earlier. [197][199] The Upanishads are the foundation of Hindu philosophical thought and its diverse traditions,[44][200] and of the Vedic corpus, they alone are widely known, and the central ideas of the Upanishads have influenced the diverse traditions of Hinduism. Vyasa Maharshi (Krishna Dvaipayana Vyasa) is considered an Avatar of Lord Vishnu and he is credited with compiling all the 18 major puranas. Srimad Bhagavatam 1.3.21. 2.Yajur veda 3.Saama veda and 4.Adharvana vada. How many mantras are there in Veda? Biswas et al (1989), Cosmic Perspectives, Cambridge University Press. Griffith's introduction mentions the recension history for his text. The puranic phase is associated with the great epics, the Ramayana and Mahabharata, and with the chronicles known as puranas. The Brahmanas which are commentaries on rituals and ceremonies. [171] The White Yajurveda separates the Samhita from its Brahmana (the Shatapatha Brahmana), the Black Yajurveda intersperses the Samhita with Brahmana commentary. [172][173] The youngest layer of Yajurveda text is not related to rituals nor sacrifice, it includes the largest collection of primary Upanishads, influential to various schools of Hindu philosophy. This has inspired later Hindu scholars such as Adi Shankara to classify each Veda into karma-kanda (कर्म खण्ड, action/sacrificial ritual-related sections, the Samhitas and Brahmanas); and jnana-kanda (ज्ञान खण्ड, knowledge/spirituality-related sections, mainly the Upanishads'). The Puranas do not enjoy the authority of a scripture in Hinduism, but are considered a Smriti. "Divya Prabandha", for example Tiruvaymoli, is a term for canonical Tamil texts considered as Vernacular Veda by some South Indian Hindus. "[111] Yāska (4th c. BCE[112]) wrote the Nirukta, which reflects the concerns about the loss of meaning of the mantras,[note 13] while Pāṇinis (4th c. BCE) Aṣṭādhyāyī is the most important surviving text of the Vyākaraṇa traditions. [note 11], While according to Mookerji understanding the meaning (vedarthajnana[89] or artha-bodha[90][note 12]) of the words of the Vedas was part of the Vedic learning,[90] Holdrege and other Indologists[91] have noted that in the transmission of the Samhitas the emphasis is on the phonology of the sounds (śabda) and not on the meaning (artha) of the mantras. [70] Witzel suggests that attempts to write down the Vedic texts towards the end of 1st millennium BCE were unsuccessful, resulting in smriti rules explicitly forbidding the writing down of the Vedas. Bloomfield, M. The Atharvaveda and the Gopatha-Brahmana, (Grundriss der Indo-Arischen Philologie und Altertumskunde II.1.b.) "[96] In the Brahmanical perspective, the sounds have their own meaning, mantras are considered as "primordial rhythms of creation", preceding the forms to which they refer. [32][33], Other texts such as the Bhagavad Gita or the Vedanta Sutras are considered shruti or "Vedic" by some Hindu denominations but not universally within Hinduism. [164] The core text of the Yajurveda falls within the classical Mantra period of Vedic Sanskrit at the end of the 2nd millennium BCE - younger than the Rigveda, and roughly contemporary with the Atharvaveda, the Rigvedic Khilani, and the Sāmaveda. Moriz Winternitz (2010), A History of Indian Literature, Volume 1, Motilal Banarsidass. [203][204][205], Vedangas developed as ancillary studies for the Vedas, but its insights into meters, structure of sound and language, grammar, linguistic analysis and other subjects influenced post-Vedic studies, arts, culture and various schools of Hindu philosophy. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFMacDonell2004 (. The songs in the later sections of the Samaveda have the least deviation from the hymns derived from the Rigveda. Gods came later, after the creation of this universe. [154], The Rigveda is structured based on clear principles. Greg Bailey (2001), Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy (Editor: Oliver Leaman), Routledge. "[117] According to Holdrege, for the exponents of karma-kandha the Veda is to be "inscribed in the minds and hearts of men" by memorization and recitation, while for the exponents of the jnana-kanda and meditation the Vedas express a transcendental reality which can be approached with mystical means. Repetitions may be found by consulting the cross-index in Griffith pp. [165] Witzel dates the Yajurveda hymns to the early Indian Iron Age, after c. 1200 and before 800 BCE. [84] This provided an additional visual confirmation, and also an alternate means to check the reading integrity by the audience, in addition to the audible means. [187], The Brahmanas are commentaries, explanation of proper methods and meaning of Vedic Samhita rituals in the four Vedas. [186] Many books of the Atharvaveda Samhita are dedicated to rituals without magic, such as to philosophical speculations and to theosophy. Bhavishya Purana. 600 BCE). [161] Including repetitions, there are a total of 1875 verses numbered in the Samaveda recension translated by Griffith. Vyasa also divided the Vedas in the Dwapara Age and wrote the famous epic Mahabharata. The Sama-Veda is a collection of rhythmic chants. [135] Several different versions of the Sama Veda and the Atharva Veda are known, and many different versions of the Yajur Veda have been found in different parts of South Asia. [106], The Vedas, Vedic rituals and its ancillary sciences called the Vedangas, were part of the curriculum at ancient universities such as at Taxila, Nalanda and Vikramashila. Karl Potter (1998), Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies, Volume 4. Ambedkar.[237]. All of them are written in verse, and all are usually attributed to Vyasa, the reputed author of the Mahabharata and editor of the Vedas. "[156] In terms of substance, the nature of hymns shift from praise of deities in early books to Nasadiya Sukta with questions such as, "what is the origin of the universe?, do even gods know the answer? Altogether there are eighteen Puranas, six devoted to Visnu, six to Brahma, and six to Siva. We discuss here the Overview of Hinduism on the basis of all available sources. Who can here proclaim it? As long as the purity of the sounds is preserved, the recitation of the mantras will be efficacious, irrespective of whether their discursive meaning is understood by human beings. sfn error: no target: CITEREFDashpande1990 (, sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFCoward1990 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMookerji2005 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFMookerji2100 (. Griffiths, Arlo and Houben, Jan E.M. According to Michael Witzel, the initial codification of the Rigveda took place at the end of the Rigvedic period at ca. The Vedas are a large body of religious texts composed in Vedic Sanskrit and are widely regarded as the oldest scriptures of Hinduism. Just as in the Rigveda, the early sections of Samaveda typically begin with hymns to Agni and Indra but shift to the abstract. These auxiliary fields of Vedic studies emerged because the language of the Vedas, composed centuries earlier, became too archaic to the people of that time. this hymn for thee have fashioned. [113] Galewicz states that Sayana, a Mimamsa scholar,[119][120][121] "thinks of the Veda as something to be trained and mastered to be put into practical ritual use," noticing that "it is not the meaning of the mantras that is most essential [...] but rather the perfect mastering of their sound form. [238] [135] The Vedic canon in its entirety consists of texts from all the various Vedic schools taken together. [note 22], There are similarities between the mythology, rituals and linguistics in Rigveda and those found in ancient central Asia, Iranian and Hindukush (Afghanistan) regions. [239], "Veda" and "Vedic" redirect here. A detailed introduction to Hindu scriptures. [167], The earliest and most ancient layer of Yajurveda samhita includes about 1,875 verses, that are distinct yet borrow and build upon the foundation of verses in Rigveda. Such writings include the Divya Prabandham (aka Tiruvaymoli).[33]. Antonio de Nicholas (2003), Meditations Through the Rig Veda: Four-Dimensional Man, CL Prabhakar (1972), The Recensions of the Sukla Yajurveda, Archív Orientální, Volume 40, Issue 1, pp. Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus (2011), Sound and Communication: An Aesthetic Cultural History of Sanskrit Hinduism, Walter de Gruyter. The Puranas use prominent legends and mythology to outline and elucidate the philosophical and religious thoughts of the Vedas. [155] The Rajasuya rituals, performed with the coronation of a king, "set in motion [...] cyclical regenerations of the universe. He is also credited with compiling Vedas into four (Rik, Yajur, Sama and Atharva Vedas). On magic spells and charms, such as those to gain better health: Kenneth Zysk (1993), Religious Medicine: The History and Evolution of Indian Medicine, Routledge. [222], The Puranas have been influential in the Hindu culture. [104] The Sampurnanand Sanskrit University has a Rigveda manuscript from the 14th century;[105] however, there are a number of older Veda manuscripts in Nepal that are dated from the 11th century onwards. Their meters shift also in a descending order. Together with the Ramayana and Mahabharata, the Puranas are the starting points of huge numbers of the stories and tales of the social, religious, and social history of India. This indigenous system of categorization was adopted by Max Müller and, while it is subject to some debate, it is still widely used. [54] The Vedic hymns themselves assert that they were skillfully created by Rishis (sages), after inspired creativity, just as a carpenter builds a chariot. [11][12] The texts of the Upanishads discuss ideas akin to the heterodox sramana-traditions. "[24] Instead, as Klostermaier notes, in their application in Vedic rituals they become magical sounds, "means to an end. 1: A–M, Rosen Publishing, sfn error: no target: CITEREFHarold_G._Coward1990 (. The oldest part of the Rig Veda Samhita was orally composed in north-western India (Punjab) between c. 1500 and 1200 BC,[note 1] while book 10 of the Rig Veda, and the other Samhitas were composed between 1200-900 BCE more eastward, between the Yamuna and the Ganges, the heartland of Aryavarta and the Kuru Kingdom (c. 1200 – c. 900 BCE). [note 1] Witzel notes that it is the Vedic period itself, where incipient lists divide the Vedic texts into three (trayī) or four branches: Rig, Yajur, Sama and Atharva. [168] Unlike the Samaveda which is almost entirely based on Rigveda mantras and structured as songs, the Yajurveda samhitas are in prose and linguistically, they are different from earlier Vedic texts. Hinduism is the third-largest religion behind Christianity and Islam. Their date may be safely assigned to the somewhat uncertain Epic Period. The Sama, Yajur and Atharva Vedas were composed around 1200 BC – 900 BC. [190] The third hymn is a mutual marriage pledge, between the bride and groom, by which the two bind themselves to each other. [176] Most of the verses are metrical, but some sections are in prose. [30], Vedas are called Maṛai or Vaymoli in parts of South India. [166] corresponding to the early Kuru Kingdom. [73] Only this tradition, embodied by a living teacher, can teach the correct pronunciation of the sounds and explain hidden meanings, in a way the "dead and entombed manuscript" cannot do. [5][6], There are four Vedas: the Rigveda, the Yajurveda, the Samaveda and the Atharvaveda. Aspirants can find more Difference Between Articles, by visiting the linked page. Bhavishya Purana is a major Purana literature of Hinduism that has been written … [13], Vedas are śruti ("what is heard"),[14] distinguishing them from other religious texts, which are called smṛti ("what is remembered"). [37] They also incorporate myths, legends and in some cases philosophy. The Rigveda is the first and most important Veda. They are Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, Atharvanaveda. The Rig veda. Mimamsa scholar Sayanas (14th c. CE) major Vedartha Prakasha[note 18] is a rare[113] commentary on the Vedas, which is also referred to by contemporary scholars. Patrick Olivelle (2014), The Early Upanisads, Oxford University Press. The first part includes four melody collections (gāna, गान) and the second part three verse “books” (ārcika, आर्चिक). also there are astadasha upa puranas too. [129] There are 10552 mantras in Rigveda, 1975 in Yajurveda, 1875 in Samveda, and 5977 in Atharvaveda with a total of 20379 mantras in all the Vedas. [68][21][69] The authoritative transmission[70] of the Vedas is by an oral tradition in a sampradaya from father to son or from teacher (guru) to student (shishya),[69][71][22][72][21] believed to be initiated by the Vedic rishis who heard the primordial sounds. The Rig-Veda is an anthology of religious hymns. "[123] Most Śrauta rituals are not performed in the modern era, and those that are, are rare. [176][177] The Atharvaveda was not considered as a Veda in the Vedic era, and was accepted as a Veda in late 1st millennium BCE. [183], The Atharva veda has been a primary source for information about Vedic culture, the customs and beliefs, the aspirations and frustrations of everyday Vedic life, as well as those associated with kings and governance. [52], The Vedangas developed towards the end of the vedic period, around or after the middle of the 1st millennium BCE. Puranas, on the other hand, are Smriti texts because they were written and remembered. The early Buddhist texts are also generally believed to be of oral tradition, with the first Pali Canon written many centuries after the death of the Buddha. Traditionally, Veda Vyasa is regarded as the compiler of the Vedas. The Vedangas were sciences that focused on helping understand and interpret the Vedas that had been composed many centuries earlier. "[90][note 12] Mookerji explains that the Vedic knowledge was first perceived by the rishis and munis. Literally, "the meaning of the Vedas made manifest.". Patrick Olivelle (1998), Upaniṣhads, Oxford University Press. BR Modak, The Ancillary Literature of the Atharva-Veda, New Delhi, Rashtriya Veda Vidya Pratishthan, 1993. Each Veda has four subdivisions. But Bhagavatha Purana says his incarnations are innumerable. 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